Why It’s Time to Reconsider ASME VIII-2 (Division 2)

>Why It’s Time to Reconsider ASME VIII-2 (Division 2)
Why It’s Time to Reconsider ASME VIII-2 (Division 2) 2018-06-21T16:13:36+00:00

New For 2017 in ASME VIII-2: Class 1 Vessels

It is more economical to build certain categories of pressure vessels to Division 2 instead of Division 1. Division 2’s lower design margins and more accurate design rules (equations) result in reduced wall thicknesses, nozzle reinforcement and welding. To further reduce costs, the 2017 Edition of ASME VIII-2 divides vessels into two classes, Class 1 and Class 2. These vessel classes have different design margins and professional engineer’s (PE) certification requirements but are similar in most other ways.

A Comparison of Class 1 and Class 2 Vessels

The requirements for Class 2 vessels are largely unchanged from the 2015 Edition of ASME VIII-2. Class 1 vessels are new for 2017 and differ from Class 2 vessels as follows:

  • Class 1 vessels use a design margin of 3.0 instead of 2.4. However, not all materials are affected by this change. A Class 1 vessel constructed from a commonly used steel like SA-516 70 uses the same allowable stress and calculates the same required thickness as a Class 2 vessel. Because the engineering costs of Class 1 and Division 1 are similar, it is now less expensive to build the majority of vessels using Class 1 instead of Division 1.

  • A User’s Design Specification (PE) certification is required only for cases where a fatigue analysis is necessary.

  • A Manufacturer’s Design Report (PE) certification is required only if Part 5 is used to design a component not covered by the equations of Part 4 or if a fatigue analysis is necessary.

The new Class 1 vessel designation provides a way for “U” Certificate holders to build material saving Division 2 vessels without all of the additional overhead involved in producing full Class 2 vessels. For more information on obtaining an ASME Certificate of Authorization to fabricate ASME VIII-2, Class 1 vessels see Code Case 2891.

The COMPRESS Division 2 Option features multiple ASME Code years and complies with the 2017 Edition of ASME VIII-2
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A complete ASME VIII-2, (Division 2) pressure vessel in COMPRESS. The 2017 Edition of the ASME VIII-2 BPVC includes new Class 1 and Class 2 vessel designations

ASME VIII-2 Versus ASME VIII-1 Cost Considerations

The overall cost reduction between Division 1 and Division 2 depends on answering the following question. Do the material and labor savings exceed the additional engineering, quality control and administrative costs? Historically, large, thick vessels have been good candidates for Division 2. The introduction of Class 1 vessels in the 2017 Edition of Division 2 gives more flexibility when deciding which Division is more cost efficient. Cost savings are now available in more cases including carbon steel vessels operating at temperatures below about 600 degrees F (315 degrees C). With the COMPRESS Division 2 Option you can switch between Divisions and Classes at any time. This makes it easy to determine which Division and Class produces the lightest, most economical vessel design.

How Does ASME VIII-2 Differ From ASME VIII-1?

One of the main differences between Divisions 1 and 2 is that Division 2 uses lower design margins often resulting in higher material allowable stresses. Design margins are reduction factors applied to the material’s ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for the purpose of setting material allowable stresses in ASME II-D. The design margins are currently 3.5 for Division 1, 3.0 for Division 2, Class 1 and 2.4 for Division 2, Class 2. In Division 1, hydrotest stresses are not specifically limited and partial penetration nozzle welds are permitted. In Division 2, hydrotest stresses are limited so hydrotest stress calculations are mandatory and full penetration nozzle welds are required.

Another major difference is the theory of failure assumed and therefore the design equations used. Specifically, Division 1 uses the maximum principle stress theory while, starting with the 2007 Edition, Division 2 uses Von Mises. As a result, Division 1 uses two sets of design equations one for “thin” and another for “thick” vessels while Division 2 uses one set of equations for all vessel thicknesses. Of particular note are the more accurate nozzle design and allowable compressive stress (external pressure) rules in Division 2 both of which can provide additional savings.

In general, thinner Division 2 vessels retain safety factors that are comparable to thicker Division 1 vessels by incorporating more extensive engineering analysis and design requirements.

COMPRESS includes ASME VIII-2 (Division 2) hydrotest stress calculations and reports, a mandatory Division 2 requirement

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